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关于唐卡

中国唐卡网 官方网址:www.cntangka.com

唐卡是藏族文化中一种独具特色的绘画艺术形式,2006年唐卡被国务院、文化部批准确定的第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。 唐卡,来源于藏语的音译,简言之就是一种卷轴画,它的画面内容以宗教题材为主,具有鲜明的民族特点、浓郁的宗教色彩和独特的艺术风格,历来被人们视为珍宝。在藏地任何一座寺庙、佛堂、僧舍乃至信徒的家中,都供有唐卡。

唐卡按照质地和制作方法划分主要有绘画唐卡和织绣唐卡两大类。绘画唐卡是用颜料在画布上直接绘制,又可分为彩唐、金唐、黑唐、朱红唐、描金唐等。所用颜料均系采用绿松石、朱砂、珊瑚、孔雀石、金银等天然矿物质研磨而成,色彩艳丽,且经千年也不褪色。织绣唐卡以丝绢绸缎为材料,又可分为刺绣、织绣、堆绣、堆绫、缂丝等品类。

唐卡使用材料考究,颜料自己研磨,构图造型生动传神,着色协调亮丽,工笔精细至极,一幅复杂、精美的唐卡少则数月,多则逾年甚至数年才能完成,画师须有虔诚的佛教信印,在诵经礼佛过程中,严格以传承的构图、形象、比例、色彩为标准绘画,佛教徒相信,一位好的画师的作品本身是具有加持力的。因此唐卡艺术形式独特,艺术价值是不可估量,也是其他形式作品不可替代的。

唐卡是修行的一种方式,和其他的艺术作品(包括绘画、摄影、舞蹈、雕塑等等)的创做动机有很大的差异,当我们静心面对唐卡的时候(观、闻),除了感受唐卡震撼画面之繁华、色彩之绚丽、笔法之细腻,还当专注于唐卡的内涵(思),感受佛法之真谛,从我做起,从当下做起(修)。

唐卡的灵魂在于一丝不苟的传承,绝不允许擅自对造像和布局进行随意的“创造发挥”,唐卡对佛像的比例、布局、构图等均有严格要求,延续百年传承,我们画师会严格遵守藏传佛教仪轨和造像度量经来绘制唐卡。现在市面上出现的形形色色的唐卡,品质良莠不齐,请大家注意鉴别唐卡的工艺、品质,唐卡画工是衡量唐卡优劣的最重要标准,画工精细、线条流畅、法相庄严、内容符合佛教法理,严格按照造像度量经绘制的唐卡才更能体现唐卡的意义。

一:唐卡起源

如果连壁画也算上,西藏的绘画历史可以追溯到两千多年前(当时西藏已经有人类居住)。但是唐卡的出现,则要推延到7世纪,松藏干布建立吐蕃王朝开始。松藏干布统一西藏之后,通过与尼泊尔尺尊公主和汉地文成公主联姻,巩固起自己的帝国。两位公主将佛教带入西藏,随之兴建起大昭寺、小昭寺等宫殿建筑。据五世达赖所著《大昭寺目录》一书记载:“法王(松藏干布)用自己的鼻血绘画了一幅白拉姆女神像,后来蔡巴万户长时期果竹西活佛在塑白拉姆女神塑像时,作为核心藏在神像腹内。”这是目前所见唐卡最早的记载。由此可以肯定,唐卡是在松藏干布时期兴起的一种新的绘画艺术。

二:唐卡分类

唐卡按照质地和制作方法分主要有绘画唐卡和织绣唐卡两大类。

绘画唐卡是用颜料在画布(棉布面、绢面和纸面)上直接绘制,又可分为:彩唐、金唐、黑唐、朱红唐、描金唐等。所采用的颜料多为天然矿物质研磨而成,色彩明丽,千年不褪色。
彩唐:用多种彩色颜料绘制,是绘制唐卡中主要形式。
金唐:以金色作底,用红色朱砂线。黑色墨线勾勒形象,是唐卡中的贵重品种。
红唐、黑唐:在朱红、黑色单一的底色上,用金色、红色、白色等白描线条造型,艺术韵味独特。

织绣唐卡以丝绢绸缎为材料,用刺绣、緙丝、织绣等工艺制作,可分为:刺绣、织锦、堆绣、堆绫、緙丝等品种。有的还在五彩缤纷的花纹上用珠玉宝石镶嵌其间,显得格外华丽精美。西藏的织物唐卡多为内地(江南、苏州的工匠)制作,后来西藏也能生产刺绣和贴花一类的织物唐卡。

此外还有一种印刷着色唐卡,这种唐卡要经过绘画、木刻、印刷、着色、装裱等几道工序,类似于版画

唐卡按照画面题材内容分,主要有佛、菩萨、护法、本尊守护神、坛城(即曼荼罗)、宗教人物(如历代祖师、达赖、班禅等)、杂类(绘天文、医药、历史、民俗等)。大概80%以上都跟藏传佛教有关,即使是描写西藏历史,反应藏族科学方面的唐卡,也都带着浓厚的宗教色彩。

唐卡有弘法布道的用途。张宏实在《探索西藏唐卡》中说:“佛教的思想义理于初始阶段较为单纯,经过漫长的演讲发展,逐渐衍生成为更复杂的义理。深奥的义理若非经过严密的思考和反省,便不是那么容易了解。于是,图像(icon)便扮演非常重要的解说工具,并且绘制在西藏特有的宗教卷轴画‘唐卡’上。图齐在《西藏的画卷》中也说:“西藏艺术的职责,是用视觉形式,传播同样的宗教内容。”

也就是说,唐卡是对深奥抽象的佛教义理的具体化,使其变得容易理解,从而更方便传播。事实上,这是一切宗教在传播过程中都使用的方法。因为必须考虑到传道的对象的文化水平,大部分信众其实都是不识字的。即便在反对偶像崇拜的基督教,格列高利教皇也说过:“文章对识字的人能起什么作用,绘画对文盲就能起什么作用。”(贡布里希《艺术的故事》第135页)藏族人民一直到7世纪才有自己的文字,文盲率也一直偏高,所以对他们来说,唐卡就是图像版的教科书。

同样是传播佛教义理的图像,还有另一种表现形式,就是壁画(雕刻也是一种形式)。跟壁画相比,唐卡具有显而易见的方便随身携带的优点。由于藏民族有四处游牧的生活习惯,居处时常变动,所以唐卡这种可以移动的神像就随之产生。唐卡还有修行观想的用途。在藏传佛教中,对着唐卡中的主尊进行观看、冥想、礼拜,是非常重要的修行密法。例如曼荼罗,就是这种密宗修行法的精华。此外,对绘制唐卡的画师,以及捐资聘请画师的施主来说,这也是一种非凡的功德。画师和施主本身就是修行者。
 

四:画师

精美、复杂的唐卡是由画师们一笔一笔画出来的,一般都要半年,甚至经年才能画成。但是这些作者的名字却很少留下,除非他本身即是深受崇敬的佛学大师,例如阿底峡、宗喀巴、萨迦班智达贡嘎坚赞等。

此外,也有一些非常著名的画师,如前藏的洛扎丹增洛布,后藏的曲银嘉措、绒巴索朗结布、江央旺布等,在西藏绘画史上留下了名字。

藏传艺术中,无论是绘画或是雕刻,作者一般都不署名。因为对于他们而言,制作的过程就是一种修行。一个传统的画师,除了本身的兴趣与天分外,还必须有虔诚的宗教信仰,受过正统而严格的宗教训练。除了绘画的专业技法外,还需要背诵经书,熟记各种经典中的教义、仪轨、图像及度量。所以唐卡制作者通常也是“画僧”,具备专业画师与宗教修行者的双重身份。

信徒们相信,一个伟大的画师所绘画的唐卡是具有极大加持力的,所以,一个唐卡画师,对于画中主题的构图、形象、比例、颜色等都不能随意创造,而必须严格遵守图像与度量的规定去作画。这正是唐卡艺术的限制所在,它的形式并不自由。正因为它限制了艺术家个人主观创造性的发挥,所以有一些人认为唐卡的画师不能算作是艺术家,而只能看作是画匠,这种评价无疑是不公平的。

五:如何欣赏唐卡?

美丽的唐卡,究竟我们应该怎样去欣赏它呢?

首先,唐卡有其特殊、相对比较固定的构图规则,就是结构。从结构出发,就能够理清唐卡的层次,便于欣赏唐卡。

一幅唐卡,一般可以区分为中央的本尊、上方的空界和下方的地界三部分。本尊是信徒所供养的对象,一般由上师选择指定。空界一般是佛、菩萨所在,所以也叫做圣界。地界一般为空行、护法或僧侣所在,所以也叫做凡界。但是圣、凡并没有严格的准则,例如有时候认为自己的祖师已经解脱成佛,就可以绘入圣界,而圣界的佛、菩萨如果太多安排不下,也可以放入凡界。此外还有其他特殊的结构,如:五坛会聚、方格式等。

其次,上面说唐卡是对抽象的佛教义理的具象化,通过图像符号来表达主题,每一种图像符号都有其特殊的意义。了解这些图像符号的象征意义,就对理解、欣赏唐卡至关重要。这些符号语言,有其严密的规定,有一定的规则可循。这些规定主要表现在佛像的服饰、面相、肤色、手印、坐姿、持物、座骑等方面。

I:Origin of Thangka

Tangka is originated from the sound translation of Tibetan Language.It is a kind of picture roll. The subject of these pictures are mostly religious. This is a special form of art inTibetan Buddhism.It is always regarded by people as a precious treasure. People pay respect to Tangka everywhere in the temple, in the Buddhist house, in the monks house and layman's homes.
  If we count from the wall pictures, Tebetan pictures have a history of more than two thousand years.(There were people living in Tibet at that time.)But the Tangka appeared in the seventh century. It began from Songzhang Yubu who established Tufan Dynasty.After Songzhang Yubu unified Tebet, the Princess Chizhun from Nepal and the Princess Wencheng from China married to the King of Tibet. These two princesses brought Buddhism into Tibet. Then the Da Zhao Monastery and Xiao Zhao Monastery palace buildings were established.According to the book named[The contents of Dazhao Monastery] written by the fifth generation Dalai. It said, " Dharma King [Songzang Ganbu] used his nose blood to draw a picture of Bramu Godess. After that, During the Caibawan Huzhang period, When the living Buddha Guozhuxi was making the statue of Godess Bramu, he put the picture as a core into the hollow of the statue.This is the earliest record of Tangka. Thus we may be sure Tangka was an art of drawing risen during the Songzhang Ganbu period.

II:The classification

Tangka is classified by quality and by making method. There are two kinds of Tangka, they are:drawing Tangka and embroidered Tangka.
  Drawing Tangka is drawn with pigment on cloth( cotton cloth, silk cloth and paper).
  They are classified under five patterns:
  Coloured Tangka, Golden Tangka, Black Tangka, Bright Red Tangka, Trace a design in gold Tangka. The pigment is made from natural minerals. The colour is bright and beautiful. It would not fade in a thousand years.
  Coloured Tangka: It is made from many kinds of pigment. It is the main pattern in Tangka.
  Golden Tangka: The base colour is golden. Then it is drawn by bright red line and black line. It is an expensive pattern in Tangka.
  Bright red Tangka: black Tangka are drawn with golden, red, white and trace a design in white on the base bright red or black paper. Embroidered Tangka is made with silk. They are made by the technic of embroidery, brocade and weaving. They are classified into: embroidery, weaving, embossing embroidery, embossing satin. Some Tangka are inlaid with pearls, jade and precious gems on colourful Tangka. It is really very beautiful and luxurious. Tibetan embroidery Tangka are made mostly by skill workers from River South, Suzhou. Nowadays embroidery and flower sticking may be produced in Tibet.
  There is also printing Tangka. This Tangka should be drawn, wood cut, printing, colouring and assembling. It is like printing pictures.
  The subjects of Tangka are mostly Buddha, Bodhisattva, Dharma guardian, Protection God of Honorable One. Bodhimanda, religious persons like generation masters, Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, and others like astronomy, pharmaceutics, history, foldlord etc. About 80% of Tangkas are related to Tibetan Buddhism. Even if they are describing Tibetan history or Tibetan science, they are also pronounced religious colour.

三:唐卡的意义

III:The significance of Tangka

Tangka has a good use to carry forward Buddhism. Mr. Zhang Hong Shi said in { Exploring Tibetan Tangka } "Buddhism is simple in the primary stage. The theory developed for a long period of time and became very complicated. Profound theory must be consider very carefully, otherwise it is not so easy to be understood. Picture became a very important explaining tool. So it is drawn on the special Tibetan religious roll pictures 'Tangka'. "Mr. Tuqi also said in [ Tibetan picture rolls ]: " The job of Tibetan art is spreading the same religious content with a vision form.
  That means Tangka may make the profound Buddhist theory concrete. In fact, this is a method used by all religions. Because we must consider the cultural level of the religious audience. Most of them are illiterate. Even if in Christianity which is against idolatry. The Pope Gelie Gaoli said: "Since the article may be effective to the literate, the pictures may do the same to the illiterate. (Gongbu Lixi said in {The story of art} page 135) Tibetan people has their own culture until the seventh century. Illiterate rate is very high. Tangka is a picture edition of text books for them.
  Some pictures which do the same job as spreading Buddhism. Another form is wall picture.(sculpture is also one kind of the forms). Comparing with wall pictures, Tangka has an obvious advantage that is easy to carry. Because the Tibetan people has a habit of moving very often. Tangka is a kind of movable Buddhist pictures created. soon afterwards
  Tangka is also used for contemplation. In Tebetan Buddhism, Contemplation to the Main Honorable Master. Meditation, worshiping are very important esoteric cultivation method in Tibetan Buddhism. For example, mantra is the essence of esoteric cultivation method. Furthermore, the painting artists of Tangka and the donators who employ the artists have outstanding merits and virtues. Artists and donators themselves are cultivators.

V:How to appreciate Tangkas?

Tangkas are so beautiful. How can we enjoy them? First of all, Tangka has a special fixed structure. We can understand the level of the Tangka from the structure and enjoy the Tangka.
  In a Tangka, the fundamental Honorable One is lacated at the center. The upper part is space. The lower part is the ground. The fundamental Honorable One is the object for offering. This must be appointed by the Senior Master. The space is where the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas staying at. It is also entitled the sage area. The ground is where the immortals, the Dharma guardians and sanghas staying at. It is also entitled the world area. If you consider your master teacher is already liberated and accompleshed Buddhahood, you can put him into the sage area. Besides, there are some other special structures like Five Bodhimandas assembly and square forms etc.
  We have said before Tangkas are the concrete products from the abstract Buddhist theory. We express the subject via the pictures and symbols. Every picture and symbol has its special meaning. It is the most important to understand the meaning of the pictures and the symbols. These symbol language has its strict regulation. There are regulations to follow. These regulations mainly manifest on the cloths, features, colour of skin, seals, siting posture. What they are holding and what they are riding, etc.

IV:Artists

Beautiful and complicated Tangkas are drawn by artists. It takes half an year or one year to complete a picture. But the artists seldom leave their names. Except that they are already very famous Buddhist master teachers. For exemple, They are Adixia, zongkeba, Sajiaban Zhidagong Gajianzan etc. Besides, there are some very famous artists as the Luozadan Zengluobu in Front Tibet and the Quyin Jiacuo, Rongbasuo Langjiebu, Jiangyang Wangbu etc in the Back Tibet. They left their names in the Tibetan painting history.
  In the Tibetan art, no matter he is a painter or a carving master, normally they don't leave their names. Because they think that in the course of production is a kind of cultivation. A traditional painting master, they are not only interested in this job, but also devout Buddhists. They are strictly riligious trained. Besides painting method, they must recite Buddhist Sutras, remember the theory of the Sutras, regulations, pictures and size. Therefore Tangka producers are mostly painting monks. They have a double identity of both painting masters and cultivators.
  Those believers believe that a Tangka drawn by a great painting master obtains a great strengthen power. Therefore a painting master must work according to regulations of pictures and size. They can not create structure, form, proportion and colour at their own will. That is the restriction of Tangka art. Its form is not free. Because the creativity of private artist is limited. Some people say the Tangka painters are only painters. They are not artists. Such a commentary is not fair.

中国唐卡网 官方网址:www.cntangka.com


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